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Signs of Vitamin Deficiency in Catfish


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Vitamins are one of the most important minor ingredients in catfish feed. Absence of vitamins in feed can cause growth problem, diseases, and many other disorders in catfish. Catfish premix is manufactured to compensate for the absence of vital vitamins in major catfish feed ingredients. Before you buy any fish premix, ensure it contains all important vitamins like Vitamin A, D, E, K, B12, C, and host of others as listed below.

Below are vitamins your catfish feed must have and the signs you will see if your feed does not have them.

VITAMIN A: Exophthalmia, edema, hemorrhagic kidney, skin depigmentation.

VITAMIN D: Low body ash, calcium, and phosphorus.

VITAMIN E: Muscular dystrophy, exudative diathesis, skin depigmentation, erythrocyte hemolysis, splenic and pancreatic hemosiderosis, fatty liver, ceroid deposition .

VITAMIN K: Hemorrhagic skin.

Thiamin: Loss of equilibrium, nervousness, dark skin color. 1 ppm

Riboflavin: Short-body dwarfism.

Pyridoxine: Greenish-blue coloration, tenany, nervous disorders, erratic swimming.

Pantothenic acid: Clubbed gills, emaciation, anemia, eroded epidermis.

Niacin: Skin and fin lesions, exophthalmia, deformed jaws, anemia.

Biotin: Hypersensitive, skin depigmentation, reduced liver pyruvate carboxylase activity.

Folic acid: Anemia.

Vitamin B12: Anemia.

Choline: Fatty liver, hemorrhagic kidney and intestine.

Ascorbic acid or vitamin C: Scoliosis, lordosis, internal and external hemorrhage, fin erosion reduced bone collagen formation.


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  1. What are the minimum vitamins and trace-mineral requirements in these catfish premix in ppm. Does all catfish premix or concentrates contains same level of all these essential amino acids, Vitamins and minerals?

    The best product I have ever used and continues is “Honey loaf” catfish concentrate by Smart Choice USA. Excellent product. I will encourage my fellow farmers to use this product. Easy to use. Just add Soymeal and corn to make complete catfish diet.

  2. Ezekiel Olumide

    Please, eniola. Thanks so much for the write up. Can not wait for the next write up. Have you been able to get the honey loaf? I am very much interested. Thank you.

  3. Adenegha adewale

    I love dis website I also want to know the best feed for catfish.i have being out of d business for awhile and I want to start all over again because of d passion I have for d business.

  4. Adenegha adewale


  5. Umeh amaka Elizabeth

    Emilia please i am interested in this honey loaf, how do i get it?

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