Vitamins are one of the most important minor ingredients in catfish feed. Absence of vitamins in feed can cause growth problem, diseases, and many other disorders in catfish. Catfish premix is manufactured to compensate for the absence of vital vitamins in major catfish feed ingredients. Before you buy any fish premix, ensure it contains all important vitamins like Vitamin A, D, E, K, B12, C, and host of others as listed below.
Below are vitamins your catfish feed must have and the signs you will see if your feed does not have them.
VITAMIN A: Exophthalmia, edema, hemorrhagic kidney, skin depigmentation.
VITAMIN D: Low body ash, calcium, and phosphorus.
VITAMIN E: Muscular dystrophy, exudative diathesis, skin depigmentation, erythrocyte hemolysis, splenic and pancreatic hemosiderosis, fatty liver, ceroid deposition .
VITAMIN K: Hemorrhagic skin.
Thiamin: Loss of equilibrium, nervousness, dark skin color. 1 ppm
Riboflavin: Short-body dwarfism.
Pyridoxine: Greenish-blue coloration, tenany, nervous disorders, erratic swimming.
Pantothenic acid: Clubbed gills, emaciation, anemia, eroded epidermis.
Niacin: Skin and fin lesions, exophthalmia, deformed jaws, anemia.
Biotin: Hypersensitive, skin depigmentation, reduced liver pyruvate carboxylase activity.
Folic acid: Anemia.
Vitamin B12: Anemia.
Choline: Fatty liver, hemorrhagic kidney and intestine.
Ascorbic acid or vitamin C: Scoliosis, lordosis, internal and external hemorrhage, fin erosion reduced bone collagen formation.